mushroom formation has been a guessing game for all. Many
have considered fall rains to be a primary influence. Yet
recent studies have noted bumper and banner crop years with little
or no rain prior to, and during fruiting. The
influence of rain considered to be only a cooling agent,
beginning formation, or fruiting ( Alexander, Pilz , et al,
Environmental Management Vol. 30, No 1, pp. 129-141). Studies conducted in
1995, near Diamond Lake, clearly indicated moisture
effects were confined to mushroom size.
Fall temperature changes have been documented as a major
influence in all stages of production. Subsequent
forecasts based on these changes have been considered
100% accurate (5 areas, 60 years examined, Canada, California, and
cause of mushrooms to form, grow and can cause a flush. Temperature
changes are an easily monitored, reasonably accurate
method to determine volume, location, and time of emersion.
Temperatures likely initiate biological, chemical, or mycological
changes, in host and/or mycelia matt. These changes are unknown to
scientist I questioned.
The ideal formation would
consist of rain and cooling, followed by a 6 to 9 degree warming for
as long as possible, a deeper cooling, accompanied by rain, and a
warming, with cold nights and moderately warm days. Some of the best
crops in the Central Oregon Cascades have occurred with all most no
rainfall. 1997 is one of those seasons around Chemult and Crescent
The general needs are easy to understand. Cooling begins
the process, warmth forms pens (tiny mushrooms), deeper
cooling begins flush, warming promotes fruit growth.
Changes such as too much warming, extended cooling, or
too deep cooling, at any stage, will limit or stop production.
Forecasting is also closely tied to forest farming.
Manipulation of canopy closure is "fruitless"
if formation patterns only occur every 5 or 6 years. Some
areas are known to fruit every 8 - 10 years.
graphs show relations between falling fall temperatures
and fruit production in hardwood habitat. Three day
average air temperature is used to plot points. Seven day
averages are used to plot in pumice soils, Cascades.
Pumice soils cool much slower. A statistical evaluation
Bumper Crop Year Southwestern Interior (1,608.07
Average Year Southwest Interior (373.34
Poor Year Southwest Interior (Less Than Ten Pounds Collected)
|Above are two similar seasons. 1995 formed less
than 1993, but 1993 continued cooling. Continued cooling
deteriorates formed and flushed fruit. Yet the two seasons were
similar in that they produced in nearly the same patches, and like
amounts. (1993 - 373.34 Pounds, 1995 -